Integration Strategy for Free-form Lithium Ion Battery: Material, Design to System level Applications

  • Arwa T. Kutbee

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Power supply in any electronic system is a crucial necessity. Especially so in fully compliant personalized advanced healthcare electronic self-powered systems where we envision seamless integration of sensors and actuators with data management components in a single freeform platform to augment the quality of our healthcare, smart living and sustainable future. However, the status-quo energy storage (battery) options require packaging to protect the indwelling toxic materials against harsh physiological environment and vice versa, compromising its mechanical flexibility, conformability and wearability at the highest electrochemical performance. Therefore, clean and safe energy storage solutions for wearable and implantable electronics are needed to replace the commercially used unsafe lithium-ion batteries. This dissertation discusses a highly manufacturable integration strategy for a free-form lithium-ion battery towards a genuine mechanically compliant wearable system. We sequentially start with the optimization process for the preparation of all solid-state material comprising a ‘’Lithium-free’’ lithium-ion microbattery with a focus on thin film texture optimization of the cathode material. State of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology was used for the thin film based battery. Additionally, this thesis reports successful development of a transfer-less scheme for a flexible battery with small footprint and free form factor in a high yield production process. The reliable process for the flexible lithium-ion battery achieves an enhanced energy density by three orders of magnitude compared to the available rigid ones. Interconnection and bonding procedures of the developed batteries are discussed for a reliable back end of line process flexible, stretchable and stackable modules. Special attention is paid to the advanced bonding, handling and packaging strategies of flexible batteries towards system-level applications. Finally, this work shows seamless integration of the developed battery module in an effective strategy to incorporate them into a complex architecture such as orthodontic domain in the human body. The developed optoelectronic system embedded in a 3D printed smart dental braces for enhanced enamel healthcare protection and overall healthcare cost reduction. These findings complement and provide power solution options in which flexibility of electronics is an added beneficial dimensionality to wearable biomedical and implantable devices.
Date of AwardOct 31 2017
Original languageEnglish (US)
Awarding Institution
  • Physical Sciences and Engineering
SupervisorMuhammad Mustafa Hussain (Supervisor)


  • Energy
  • Battary
  • lithium-ion
  • Thinfilm
  • Flexible
  • Integration

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