Inkjet Printing of Enhancement-mode Organic Electrochemical Transistors

  • Alan Avila-Ramirez

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Additive manufacturing technologies, including inkjet printing, have significantly transformed both research and industry, offering cost-effective and accessible solutions with innovative equipment capabilities. This study focuses on advancing p-type depletion and enhancement-mode poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) through molecular de-doping and rheological measurements, achieving a printing resolution of 30 μm. The versatility of these inks is demonstrated from three distinct perspectives. Firstly, the electrochemical stability of the enhancement-mode behavior opens new possibilities for low-power consumption, stable and sensitive platforms useful for detection of DopamineC and Ascorbic Acid at various concentrations. Secondly, we exemplify the democratization of in-house fabrication through fully printed, all-PEDOT:PSS, transparent, flexible, and bendable paper-based Organic Electrochemical Transistors (OECTs). This showcases the feasibility of employing inkjet printing to create functional electronic devices with ease. Lastly, we explore optimizations that enable deeper personalization by employing multiple material localizations and adjusting the electrical conductivity of OECTs. This engineering approach has resulted in the design of Organic Electrochemical Complementary Amplifiers (OECAs), we incorporated a second formulated enhancement-mode conducting polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) as the n-type material to complement the PEDOT:PSS de-doped ink. These developments aim to foster global innovation, representing a significant leap forward in the field of organic electronics and in-house fabrication by complementing this engineering improvement from both fabrication and electrochemistry approaches.
Date of AwardJul 31 2023
Original languageEnglish (US)
Awarding Institution
  • Biological, Environmental Sciences and Engineering
SupervisorSahika Inal (Supervisor)


  • OECTs
  • Conducting polymers
  • Enhancement-mode
  • OECAs
  • Inkjet Printing
  • Additive Manufacturing
  • in-House Fabrication
  • Bioelectronics
  • Printed Eletronics

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