Full-Dimension Massive MIMO Technology for Fifth Generation Cellular Networks

  • Qurrat-Ul-Ain Nadeem

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Full dimension (FD) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology has recently attracted substantial research attention in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as a promising technique for the next-generation of wireless communication networks. FD-MIMO scenarios utilize a planar two-dimensional (2D) active antenna system (AAS) that not only allows a large number of antenna elements to be placed within feasible base station (BS) form factors, but also provides the ability of elevation beamforming. This dissertation presents the elevation beamforming analysis for cellular networks utilizing FD massive MIMO antenna arrays. In particular, two architectures are proposed for the AAS - the uniform linear array (ULA) and the uniform circular array (UCA) of antenna ports, where each port is mapped to a group of vertically arranged antenna elements with a corresponding downtilt weight vector. To support FD-MIMO techniques, this dissertation presents two different 3D ray-tracing channel modeling approaches, the ITU based ‘antenna port approach’ and the 3GPP technical report (TR) 36.873 based ‘antenna element approach’. The spatial correlation functions (SCF)s for both FD-MIMO arrays are characterized based on the antenna port approach. The resulting expressions depend on the underlying angular distributions and antenna patterns through the Fourier series coefficients of the power spectra and are therefore valid for any 3D propagation environment. Simulation results investigate the performance patterns of the two arrays as a function of several channel and array parameters. The SCF for the ULA of antenna ports is then characterized in terms of the downtilt weight vectors, based on the more recent antenna element approach. The derived SCFs are used to form the Rayleigh correlated 3D channel model. All these aspects are put together to provide a mathematical framework for the design of elevation beamforming schemes in single-cell and multi-cell scenarios. Finally, this dissertation proposes to use the double scattering channel to model limited scattering in realistic propagation environments and derives deterministic equivalents of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and ergodic rate with regularized zeroforcing (RZF) precoding. The performance of a massive MIMO system is shown to be limited by the number of scatterers. To this end, this dissertation points out future research directions
Date of AwardNov 2018
Original languageEnglish (US)
Awarding Institution
  • Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering
SupervisorMohamed-Slim Alouini (Supervisor)


  • Massive MIMO
  • beamforming
  • spatial correlation
  • active antenna array
  • full-dimension
  • channel modeling

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