Antennas on Floating Transceivers for Internet of Sea Applications

Student thesis: Master's Thesis


The extensive industrialization and human expansion has caused environmental protection wildlife conservation to become paramount concerns of the 21st century. The ecosystems of oceans and seas have particularly been affected due to activities like oil spills and increased fishing. This has led to a growing interest in monitoring of the oceans and marine animals to detect signs of distress in aquatic species. However, acquisition of data from oceans to land has been a challenging and expensive task. The concept of Internet of Sea provides a solution to this data transfer between the ocean nodes, like animal tags or deployed floating transceivers, and our land Internet, and can potentially eliminate the need of expensive monitoring ships or underwater cables. The Internet of Sea is system that comprises of sensor nodes in the form of detachable marine animal tags as the data acquisition platforms and distributed floating transceivers as the intermedium nodes which then transfer the data to the base-stations located on lands. The data acquired by animal tags are first to be stored in the tag, and once the tag comes to the sea surface, the data is transferred to the nearby floating transceivers. The floating transceivers have multi- hopping capability so the data can be passed to the land base-stations through a small number of transceivers. Due to the specific geometric shapes and size constraints of the tag and floating transceivers, as well as the harsh ocean environment, novel integrated antennas are required for this type of system. In this thesis, we propose several antenna designs suitable for Internet of Sea applications. The first design is a quasi-isotropic Antenna in Package (AiP), operating in the Bluetooth band, which has been designed for semi-real-time monitoring. Secondly, a large frequency-ratio dual- band microstrip antenna array, working at Extended Global System for Mobile communications (E-GSM900), Long Range (LoRa), and Bluetooth bands, has been designed for large-area wireless communication. Lastly, a circularly polarized microstrip antenna array has also been designed for Global Positioning System (GPS). Throughout the work, the measured results are consistent with the design strategies and simulation results.
Date of AwardApr 2021
Original languageEnglish (US)
Awarding Institution
  • Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering
SupervisorAtif Shamim (Supervisor)


  • Antenna
  • Internet of Sea
  • Quasi-isotropic
  • Dual-band
  • Frequency Ratio
  • Antenna Array

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