This paper presentsamultiscale finite-element formulation for the second modeofzonal detached-eddy simulation. The multiscale formulation corrects the lack of stability of the standard Galerkin formulation by incorporating the effect of unresolved scales to the grid (resolved) scales. The stabilization terms arise naturally and are free of userdefined stability parameters. Validation of the method is accomplished via the turbulent flow over tandem cylinders. The boundary-layer separation, free shear-layer rollup, vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder, and interaction with the downstream cylinder are well reproduced. Good agreement with experimental measurements gives credence to the accuracy of zonal detached-eddy simulation in modeling turbulent separated flows. A comprehensive study is then conducted on the performance degradation of ice-contaminated airfoils. NACA 23012 airfoil with a spanwise ice ridge and Gates Learjet Corporation-305 airfoil with a leading-edge horn-shape glaze ice are selected for investigation. Appropriate spanwise domain size and sufficient grid density are determined to enhance the reliability of the simulations. A comparison of lift coefficient and flowfield variables demonstrates the added advantage that the zonal detached-eddy simulation model brings to the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Spectral analysis and instantaneous visualization of turbulent structures are also highlighted via zonal detached-eddy simulation. Copyright © 2015 by the CFD Lab of McGill University. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Fondation J.-Armand Bombardier, Bell Helicopter Textron, and CAE, Inc., for funding through the Industrial Research Chair at the Computational Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, McGill University. The authors acknowledge the help of Marco Fossati of the Computational Fluid Dyanamics Laboratory for providing an advanced hybrid grid generation tool and Guido Baruzzi of the Newmerical Technologies International for his many valuable suggestions. The authors are also grateful to Compute Canada and Consortium Laval UQAM McGill and Eastern Quebec for providing the supercomputing resources.