Zinc-ion batteries: Materials, mechanisms, and applications

Jun Ming, Jing Guo, Chuan Xia, Wenxi Wang, Husam N. Alshareef*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

623 Scopus citations


The increasing global demand for energy and the potential environmental impact of increased energy consumption require greener, safer, and more cost-efficient energy storage technologies. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been successful in meeting much of today's energy storage demand; however, lithium (Li) is a costly metal, is unevenly distributed around the world, and poses serious safety and environmental concerns. Alternate battery technologies should thus be developed. Zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) have recently attracted attention due to their safety, environmental friendliness, and lower cost, compared to LIBs. They use aqueous electrolytes, which give them an advantage over multivalent ion batteries (e.g., Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) that require more complex electrolytes. However, as with every new technology, many fundamental and practical challenges must be overcome for ZIBs to become commercial products. In this manuscript, we present a timely review and offer perspectives on recent developments and future directions in ZIBs research. The review is divided into five parts: (i) cathode material development, including an understanding of their reaction mechanism; (ii) electrolyte development and characterization; (iii) zinc anode, current collector, and separator design; (iv) applications; and (v) outlook and perspective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-84
Number of pages27
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering R: Reports
StatePublished - Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.


  • Anode
  • Cathode
  • Electrolyte
  • Flexible batteries
  • Wearable devices
  • Zinc-ion batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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