Wave-based non-line-of-sight imaging using fast f-k Migration

David B. Lindell, Gordon Wetzstein, Matthew O’Toole

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations

Abstract

Imaging objects outside a camera’s direct line of sight has important applications in robotic vision, remote sensing, and many other domains. Time-of-flight-based non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging systems have recently demonstrated impressive results, but several challenges remain. Image formation and inversion models have been slow or limited by the types of hidden surfaces that can be imaged. Moreover, non-planar sampling surfaces and non-confocal scanning methods have not been supported by efficient NLOS algorithms. With this work, we introduce a wave-based image formation model for the problem of NLOS imaging. Inspired by inverse methods used in seismology, we adapt a frequency-domain method, f-k migration, for solving the inverse NLOS problem. Unlike existing NLOS algorithms, f-k migration is both fast and memory efficient, it is robust to specular and other complex reflectance properties, and we show how it can be used with non-confocally scanned measurements as well as for non-planar sampling surfaces. f-k migration is more robust to measurement noise than alternative methods, generally produces better quality reconstructions, and is easy to implement. We experimentally validate our algorithms with a new NLOS imaging system that records room-sized scenes outdoors under indirect sunlight, and scans persons wearing retroreflective clothing at interactive rates.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalACM Transactions on Graphics
Volume38
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 12 2019
Externally publishedYes

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