Variants in Bedaquiline-Candidate-Resistance Genes: Prevalence in Bedaquiline-Naive Patients, Effect on MIC, and Association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage

Emmanuel Rivière, Lennert Verboven, Anzaan Dippenaar, Sander Goossens, Elise De Vos, Elizabeth Streicher, Bart Cuypers, Kris Laukens, Fathia Ben Rached, Timothy C. Rodwell, Arnab Pain, Robin M. Warren, Tim H. Heupink, Annelies Van Rie

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Studies have shown that variants in bedaquiline-resistance genes can occur in isolates from bedaquiline-naive patients. We assessed the prevalence of variants in all bedaquiline-candidate-resistance genes in bedaquiline-naive patients, investigated the association between these variants and lineage, and the effect on phenotype. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify variants in bedaquiline-resistance genes in isolates from 509 bedaquiline treatment naive South African tuberculosis patients. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to investigate the association with the isolate lineage background. Bedaquiline MIC was determined using the UKMYC6 microtiter assay. Variants were identified in 502 of 509 isolates (98.6%), with the highest (85%) prevalence of variants in the Rv0676c (mmpL5) gene. We identified 36 unique variants, including 19 variants not reported previously. Only four isolates had a bedaquiline MIC equal to or above the epidemiological cut-off value of 0.25 μg/mL. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 of the 15 variants observed more than once occurred monophyletically in one Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sub)lineage. The bedaquiline MIC differed between isolates belonging to lineage 2 and 4 (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.0004). The prevalence of variants in bedaquiline-resistance genes in isolates from bedaquiline-naive patients is high, but very few (
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
StatePublished - Jun 27 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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