Variability in Resistive Memories

Juan B. Roldan, Enrique Miranda, David Maldonado, Alexey N. Mikhaylov, Nikolay V. Agudov, Alexander A. Dubkov, Maria N. Koryazhkina, Mireia B. González, Marco Antonio Villena, Samuel Poblador, Mercedes Saludes-Tapia, Rodrigo Picos, Francisco Jiménez-Molinos, Stavros G. Stavrinides, Emili Salvador, Francisco J. Alonso, Francesca Campabadal, Bernardo Spagnolo, Mario Lanza, Leon O. Chua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Resistive memories are outstanding electron devices that have displayed a large potential in a plethora of applications such as nonvolatile data storage, neuromorphic computing, hardware cryptography, etc. Their fabrication control and performance have been notably improved in the last few years to cope with the requirements of massive industrial production. However, the most important hurdle to progress in their development is the so-called cycle-to-cycle variability, which is inherently rooted in the resistive switching mechanism behind the operational principle of these devices. In order to achieve the whole picture, variability must be assessed from different viewpoints going from the experimental characterization to the adequation of modeling and simulation techniques. Herein, special emphasis is put on the modeling part because the accurate representation of the phenomenon is critical for circuit designers. In this respect, a number of approaches are used to the date: stochastic, behavioral, mesoscopic..., each of them covering particular aspects of the electron and ion transport mechanisms occurring within the switching material. These subjects are dealt with in this review, with the aim of presenting the most recent advancements in the treatment of variability in resistive memories.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2200338
JournalAdvanced Intelligent Systems
StatePublished - Mar 14 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-03-20
Acknowledgements: This research was supported by project B-TIC-624-UGR20 funded by the Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidad, Junta de Andalucía (Spain) and the FEDER program. F.J.A. acknowledges grant PGC2018-098860-B-I00 and PID2021-128077NB-I00 financed by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033/FEDER and A-FQM-66-UGR20 financed by the Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidad, Junta de Andalucía (Spain) and the FEDER program. M.B.G. acknowledges the Ramón y Cajal Grant No. RYC2020-030150-I. M.L. and M.A.V. acknowledge generous support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. A.N.M., N.V.A., A.A.D., M.N.K. and B.S. acknowledge the Government of the Russian Federation under Megagrant Program (agreement no. 074-02-2018-330 (2)) and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation under “Priority-2030” Academic Excellence Program of the Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (N-466-99_2021-2023). The authors thank D.O. Filatov, A.S. Novikov, and V.A. Shishmakova for their help in studying the dependence of MFPT on external voltage (Section 4). The devices in Section 4 were designed in the frame of the scientific program of the National Center for Physics and Mathematics (project “Artificial intelligence and big data in technical, industrial, natural and social systems”) and fabricated at the facilities of Laboratory of memristor nanoelectronics (state assignment for the creation of new laboratories for electronics industry). E.M. acknowledges the support provided by the European project MEMQuD, code 20FUN06, which has received funding from the EMPIR programme co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.


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