Untargeted Metabolomic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacities of Different Solvent Crude Extracts of Ephedra foeminea

Ruba Al-Nemi, Arwa A. Makki, Khaled Sawalha, Dina A. Hajjar, Mariusz Jaremko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Ephedra foeminea is a traditional medicinal plant used in the Eastern Mediterranean region. This study aims to investigate the chemical profiles of different solvent extracts of E. foeminea via an untargeted metabolomics approach, alongside determining their antioxidant capacities. E. foeminea samples collected from Jordan were macerated in solvents of varying polarities; dichloromethane/methanol, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and acetone. The crude extracts were subjected to comprehensive chemical profiling and metabolomics study using Gas chromatography–Mass spectrometry (GC–MS), Liquid chromatography–Mass spectrometry (LC–MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The obtained data were analyzed using Venn diagrams, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), and Metabolite Enrichment Set Analysis (MESA). ABTS assay was performed to measure the crude extracts’ antioxidant activity. MESA revealed the dominant chemical groups as amino acids, fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and carbohydrates. Results indicated that dichloromethane/methanol and methanolic extracts had the most distinct composition as well as the most unique compounds. The methanolic extract had the most potency (IC50 249.6 µg/mL) in the ABTS assay. However, no significant differences were found. In conclusion, solvents influenced the recovery of metabolites in E. foeminea and the antioxidant activity of the E. foeminea methanolic extract could be correlated to the abundant presence of diverse bioactive compounds.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)451
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 17 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-05-19
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): 4447
Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Abdel-Hamid Emwas, Najeh Kharbatia, Salim Sioud (Core Labs, KAUST, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia) and Inas Al-Younis for aiding in technical support and data analysis.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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