Chromatin, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, serves as a main integrator of cellular signals. Increasing evidence links cellular functional to chromatin state. Indeed, different metabolites are emerging as modulators of chromatin function and structure. Alterations in chromatin state are decisive for regulating all aspects of genome function and ultimately have the potential to produce phenotypic changes. Several metabolites such as acetyl-CoA, S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have now been well characterized as main substrates or cofactors of chromatin modifying enzymes. However, there are other metabolites that can directly interact with chromatin influencing its state or that modulate the properties of chromatin regulatory factors. Also, there is a growing list of atypical enzymatic and non-enzymatic chromatin modifications that originate from different cellular pathways that have not been in the limelight of chromatin research. Here, we summarize different properties and functions of uncommon regulatory molecules originating from intermediate metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Based on the various modes of action on chromatin and the plethora of putative, so far not described chromatin regulating metabolites, we propose that there are more links between cellular functional state and chromatin regulation to be discovered. We hypothesize that these connections could provide interesting starting points for interfering with cellular epigenetic states at a molecular level.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-01-19
Acknowledgements: We thank Dr. Sarah Kreuz for suggestions and critical reading of the manuscript. Work in the laboratory of Wolfgang Fischle is funded by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology