This study presents the optimization and application of an analytical method based on the use of stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the ultra-trace analysis of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) in Arctic ice. In a first step, the mass-spectrometry conditions were optimized to quantify 48 compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorinated pesticides) at the low pg/L level. In a second step, the performance of this analytical method was evaluated to determine POPs in Arctic cores collected during an oceanographic campaign. Using a calibration range from 1 to 1800 pg/L and by adjusting acquisition parameters, limits of detection at the 0.1-99 and 102-891 pg/L for organohalogenated compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively, were obtained by extracting 200 mL of unfiltered ice water. α-hexachlorocyclohexane, DDTs, chlorinated biphenyl congeners 28, 101 and 118 and brominated diphenyl ethers congeners 47 and 99 were detected in ice cores at levels between 0.5 to 258 pg/L. We emphasise the advantages and disadvantages of in situ SBSE in comparison with traditional extraction techniques used to analyze POPs in ice.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research is a contribution to the ATOS project, funded by the Ministry of Education (ref. POL2006-00550/CTM). N. Berrojalbiz and M. J. Ojeda are thanked for technical support before the campaign and T. Davila for assisting in the MS processing. The crew of R/V Hespérides and our colleagues are sincerely acknowledged for their help and for ensuring a successful and pleasant cruise.
- Artic ice
- Gas chromatography
- Mass spectrometry
- Persistent Organic Pollutants
- Stir bar sorptive extraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry