MXenes are a class of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides that have shown promise for high-rate pseudocapacitive energy storage. However, the effects that irreversible oxidation have on the surface chemistry and electrochemical properties of MXenes are still not understood. Here we report on a controlled anodic oxidation method which improves the rate performance of titanium carbide MXene (Ti 3 C 2 T x, T x refers to -F, =O, -Cl and -OH) electrodes in acidic electrolytes. The capacitance retention at 2000 mV/s (with respect to the lowest scan rate of 5 mV/s) increases gradually from 38% to 66% by tuning the degree of anodic oxidation. At the same time, a loss in the redox behavior of Ti 3 C 2 is evident at high anodic potentials after oxidation. Several analysis methods were employed to reveal that preserving the structure and surface chemistry while simultaneously introducing defects, without compromising electrochemically active sites, are key factors for improving the rate performance of Ti 3 C 2 T x . This study demonstrates improvement of the electrochemical performance of MXene electrodes by controlling the surface chemistry and transition metal stoichiometry.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): URF/1/ 2963-01-01
Acknowledgements: We thank Chuanfang (John) Zhang for the help with material synthesisand Christine Hatter for the help with FTIR test. JunTang issponsored by the China Scholarship Council (CSC). Researchon electrochemical interfacesat Drexel University was supported by the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures, and Transport (FIRST) Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Collaboration between King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and Drexel University was supported by KAUST-Drexel Competitive Research Grant (URF/1/ 2963-01-01). Collaboration between Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech) and Drexel University was supported by the Fundamental Research (Discipline Arrangement) Project funding from Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee (Grant No. JCYJ20170412154554048), the Peacock Team Project funding from Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee (Grant No. KQTD2015033110182370).