Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

Monica Morales-Masis, Stefaan De Wolf, Rachel Woods-Robinson, Joel W. Ager, Christophe Ballif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

309 Scopus citations


With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1600529
JournalAdvanced Electronic Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 30 2017

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: Part of this work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF), International co-operation program –ISV- Project number IZK0Z2_171115; CCEM CONNECT PV; CTI FlexOLED and SNF Sinergia DisCO. J.W.A. was supported by the Electronic Materials Program, funded by Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02–05CH11231. S.D.W. was supported by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). R.W.R. was funded by the National Science Fundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP) and by the UC Berkeley Chancellors Fellowship. The authors thank Virginia Unkefer from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for manuscript editing, Heno Hwang, scientific illustrator from KAUST, for creating the illustrations in Table 2, Quentin Jeangros for the TCO SEM image and Jean Cattin for the energy band diagram, both from EPFL.


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