Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) combined with biomacromolecules, viruses and cells have emerged as novel biocomposites for application to drug delivery, biosensing, biospecimen preservation, and cell and virus manipulation. The integration of biological entities into MOF matrices generates MOF biocomposites with functional characteristics that cannot be observed in the separate components, such as enhanced chemical and thermal stability, resistance to proteases, MOF-conferred selectivity, and controlled release. In this review, we will discuss these functional properties and applications of the biocomposites obtained by the encapsulation of (i) proteins, (ii) carbohydrates, (iii) nucleic acids, and (iv) viruses or cells in a MOF matrix. Finally, we review the post functionalization of MOF-based drug carriers with lipids as a potential route to enhance the dispersion, stability in biological fluids, and blood circulation time of MOF-based drug delivery systems.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-12-28
Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 FETOPEN-1-2016-2017 research, LP-03, the innovation program under grant agreement 801464, and the European Research Council under the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme (FP/2014-2020)/ERC Grant Agreement no. 771834 – POPCRYSTAL. M.J.V.H. acknowledges The National Council of Science and Technology (CONACyT, México) for the postdoctoral scholarship (CVU 419210). E.A. acknowledges Austrian Agency for International Cooperation in Education and Research (OeAD-GmbH) for the Ph.D. scholarship. C.J.S. and C.J.D. acknowledge the Australian Research Council (DP170103531 and DP200102411).