This article presents a theoretical model for the determination of the efficiency, the heat removal factor, and the outlet water temperature of a single collector and an array of flat-pipe heat-pipe collectors. The model is validated by on-site testing of 16 heat-pipe collectors under the typical weather conditions in Singapore. Within the operational range of interest of the hot water temperatures, the results show that the proposed model is sufficient to describe the steady-state performance of the collector array.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films