Ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic autoimmune disease of the gut with a relapsing and remitting nature, considers a major health-care problem. DSS is a well-studied pharmacologically-induced model for UC. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and its close association with p-38-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (p-38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has important regulatory roles in inflammation and developing UC. Probiotics are gaining popularity for their potential in UC therapy. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role of azithromycin in UC remains a knowledge need. In the present rats-established UC, the therapeutic roles of oral probiotics (60 billion probiotic bacteria per kg per day) and azithromycin (40 mg per kg per day) regimens were evaluated by measuring changes in disease activity index, macroscopic damage index, oxidative stress markers, TLR4, p-38 MAPK, NF-κB signaling pathway in addition to their molecular downstream; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, IL10 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). After individual and combination therapy with probiotics and azithromycin regimens, the histological architecture of the UC improved with restoration of intestinal tissue normal architecture. These findings were consistent with the histopathological score of colon tissues. Each separate regimen lowered the remarkable TLR4, p-38 MAPK, iNOS, NF-κB as well as TNFα, IL1β, IL6 and MDA expressions and elevated the low IL10, glutathione and superoxide dismutase expressions in UC tissues. The combination regimen possesses the most synergistic beneficial effects in UC that, following thorough research, should be incorporated into the therapeutic approach in UC to boost the patients' quality of life.
KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-06-19
Acknowledgements: This work is funded by all authors of Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. Also, funded by Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University by Supporting Project number (PNURSP2023R165), Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.