The epoxy resin system: function and role of curing agents

Tariq Aziz, Fazal Haq, Arshad Farid, Li Cheng, Lai Fatt Chuah, Awais Bokhari, Muhammad Mubashir, Doris Ying Ying Tang, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Curing agents are critical components of aqueous epoxy resin systems. Unfortunately, its uses and applications are restricted because of its low emulsifying yields. Epoxy resins are frequently used in electrical devices, castings, packaging, adhesive, corrosion resistance, and dip coating. In the presence of curing agents, epoxy resins become rigid and infusible. Eco-friendliness and mechanical functionality have emerged as vulcanization properties. Curing agents are used for surface modification, thermodynamic properties, functional approaches to therapeutic procedures, and recent advances in a variety of fields such as commercial and industrial levels. The curing agent has superior construction and mechanical properties when compared to the commercial one, which suggests that it has the potential for use as the architectural and industrial coatings. The thermal stability of cured products is good due to the presence of the imide group and the hydrogenated phenanthrene ring structure. Over the course of the projection period, it is anticipated that the global market for curing agents will continue to expand at a steady rate. The growth of the market is mainly driven by its expanding range in future applications such as adhesives, composites, construction, electrical, electronics, and wind energy. This review focused on the most recent advancements in curing techniques, emphasizing their thermal and mechanical properties. The review also presents a critical discussion of key aspects and bottleneck or research gap of the application of curing agents in the industrial areas.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCarbon Letters
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-09-11
Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank their parent institution for providing the necessary facilities to complete the current research. This work was also supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme, Malaysia [FRGS/1/2019/STG05/UNIM/02/2]. Pau Loke Show would like to acknowledge Khalifa University (FSU-2024-001) with project reference number 8474000580.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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