The external- and self-excited premixed swirling flames are experimentally studied to understand the thermoacoustic instabilities under different injector sizes. We use high-speed CH* chemiluminescence, formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry to measure the dynamic characteristics of the flame surface and flow field. Reducing the size of the injector from 20 mm to 16 mm changes the thermoacoustic system's stability. The flame transfer function shows that reducing the size of the injector significantly reduces the phase delay, enhances the response amplitude, and annihilates the local gain extrema. The low-order network model analysis is performed, and it is found that the phase variation caused by changing injector size is the main reason for the induced thermoacoustic instability. The pixel-by-pixel decomposition of CH* images is used to extract the weighted gain and phase maps of local heat release oscillation. The swirling flame with a small injector size of 16 mm has a short time delay and a slow phase velocity, which results in strong in-phase interference of the local heat release oscillators and enhanced gains. Reducing the size of the injector strengthens the inner and outer shear layers, thereby suppressing the heat release fluctuation of the flame base. The enhanced vorticity supply of the shear layer increases the size and strength of the outer vortex ring, resulting in strong heat release fluctuations at the flame tip, which is responsible for its large unadulterated fluctuation intensity. These changes in the flow field change the relative heat release intensity and fluctuation amplitude between the flame base and tip. The out-of-phase interference among multiple vortices causes weak flame response at high frequencies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aerospace Engineering