The effects of compression ratio and combustion initiation location on knock emergence by using multiple pressure sensing devices

Kalim Uddeen, Hao Shi, Qinglong Tang, Gaetano Magnotti, James W. G. Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Knock research is an essential study because knock limits spark-ignition (SI) engine power output, durability, noise, fuel consumption, and emission performance. The thermal efficiency of an engine can be improved by increasing the compression ratio, but at the same time it leads to the possibility of end gas autoignition inside the chamber. The objective of this work was to show the effect of three different compression ratios (CRs) 8.5, 9.5, and 10.5 on the mechanism of knock. In order to achieve this four equispaced spark plugs were fitted around the circumference of a special metal liner to initiate flame fronts from those plugs by firing with different spark approaches (e.g. spark timing, number, and location). In addition, six pressure sensors were installed at various locations to precisely record the autoignition event by monitoring pressure oscillations, combustion characteristics, and knock intensity. In-cylinder pressure and heat release rate (HRR) analyses were applied to distinguish the knocking combustion for the three different CRs. The results showed that a greater number of spark plugs produced more stable combustion even for a delayed spark timing (ST) than a single spark plug, but also increased pressure oscillations, HRR and knock propensity with higher CRs due to an increase in pressure and temperature inside the cylinder. The maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation (MAPO) method was used to determine the knock intensity, and it was observed that at the lowest CR of 8.5 three spark plugs gave higher MAPO values compared to four spark plugs for the same operating conditions. However, four spark plugs instigated higher MAPO values than three spark plugs for the higher CRs of 9.5 and 10.5 because, with the increase of CR and spark plug numbers, the pressure and temperature were increased during the combustion event, which was coupled with the compression effect on the unburned end gas mixture. Additionally, Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and wavelet methods were implemented to observe the frequencies induced during knock. It was found that sparking four plugs provoked various vibration modes in different amplitude ranges with the different CRs.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146808742210753
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
StatePublished - Jan 29 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-02-01

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering


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