The effect of z-binding yarns on the electrical properties of 3D woven composites

Mohamed Nasr Saleh*, Arief Yudhanto, Gilles Lubineau, Constantinos Soutis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Electrical resistance monitoring (ERM) has been used to study the effect of the z-binding yarns on the initial electrical resistance (ER) and its change of three architectures of 3D woven carbon fibre composites namely (orthogonal “ORT”, layer-to-layer “LTL” and angle interlock “AI”) when tested in tension. Specimens are loaded in on-axis “warp” and off-axis “45°” directions. In situ ERM is achieved using the four-probe technique. Monotonic and cyclic “load/unload” tests are performed to investigate the effect of piezo-resistivity and residual plasticity on resistance variation. The resistance increase for the off-axis loaded specimens (∼90%) is found to be higher than that of their on-axis counterparts (∼20%). In the case of cyclic testing, the resistance increase upon unloading is irreversible which suggests permanent damage presence not piezo-resistive effect. At the moment, it is difficult to obtain a direct correlation between resistance variation and damage in 3D woven composites due to the complexity of the conduction path along the three orthogonal directions, however this study demonstrates the potential of using ERM for damage detection in 3D woven carbon fibre-based composites and highlights the challenges that need to be overcome to establish ERM as a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for such material systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)606-616
Number of pages11
JournalComposite Structures
StatePublished - Dec 15 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd


  • 3-Dimensional reinforcement
  • Carbon fibres
  • Damage mechanics
  • Electrical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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