The burden of prostate cancer in North Africa and Middle East, 1990–2019: Findings from the global burden of disease study

Kangevari M. Abbasi, S.S. Moghaddam, H. Ghamari S., Khyavy M. Azangou, R. Malekpour M., N. Rezaei, N. Rezaei, A. Kolahi A., E. Amini, A.H. Mokdad, H. Jamshidi, M. Naghavi, B. Larijani, F. Farzadfar, M. Arif, J. Khanali, M. Rashidi M., A. Ahmadi, S. Ahmadi, M. GholamalizadehMirzaian A. Haj, A.R. Mafi, S.A. Nejadghaderi, S. Azadnajafabad, S.F. Maroufi, E. Mohammadi, S. Momtazmanesh, P. Shobeiri, B. Abbasi, H. Akhavizadegan, Y. Alimohamadi, Nejad N. Hafezi, A. Karimi, A. Nowroozi, R. Malekzadeh, S.G. Sepanlou, E.M. Nasab, R. Shirkoohi, F. Vakhshiteh, J.F. Yazdanpanah, M. Zahir, H. Abidi, M. Zoladl, Gharbieh E. Abu, M.S. Afzal, N. Saqib, A.R. Ahmad, S. Ahmad, Hafshejani A. Mohammadian, N. Bagheri, H. Ahmed, Khiavi M. Akbarzadeh, S. Hosseini M., A.J. Mamaghani, A. Mahmoodpoor, H.A. Hamad, B. Sathian, F.A.N. Alhalaiqa, M.M. Batiha A., J. Arabloo, A. Kabir, M. Noori, A. Tiyuri, S.M. Aljunid, O. Almidani, Zozani M. Arab, S.S. Athari, A.A. Jafari, S. Mirmoeeni, N. Baghcheghi, H.R. Koohestani, S. Bagherieh, A. Fatehizadeh, A.S. Bhagavathula, A. Bijani, N.S. Butt, A.A. Malik, Z.S. Natto, R.D.C. Soltani, M. Golitaleb, R. Moradzadeh, M. Zamanian, A. Daryani, A. Rafiei, M. Dianatinasab, S. Shahabi, I.E. Sayed, M. Elhadi, M. Fereidoonnezhad, M. Foroutan, P. Goleij, M.I.M. Gubari, S. Sheikhbahaei, S. Hamidi, S. Haque, K. Hayat, M. Househ, E. Jamshidi, F. Joukar, Ghanaei F. Mansour, M. Naghipour, R. Kalhor, Y.S. Khader, B. Kiani, A. Sahebkar, S. Livani, S. Mohammadi, F. Madadizadeh, A K. Majidzadeh, Y. Mohammad, Paula Moraga, Aliabad H. Okati, R. Pakzad, Z.Z. Piracha, F.H. Pottoo, V. Rahmanian, M.S. Razeghinia, M. Sahebazzamani, M. Rezaeian, U. Saeed, A.M. Samy, M.A. Shaikh, M. Suleman, I. Ullah, S.V. Tahbaz, S.H. Yahyazadeh, D. Yuce, I. Zare

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5 Scopus citations


Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer among men worldwide. This study presents estimates of PCa prevalence, incidence, death, years-of-life-lost (YLLs), years-lived-with-disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs), and the burden attributable to smoking during 1990-2019 in North Africa and Middle East using data of Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2019. Methods This study is a part of GBD 2019. Using vital registration and cancer registry data, the estimates on PCa burden were modeled. Risk factor analysis was performed through the six-step conceptual framework of Comparative Risk Assessment. Results The age-standardized rates (95% UI) of PCa incidence, prevalence, and death in 2019 were 23.7 (18.5-27.9), 161.1 (126.6-187.6), and 11.7 (9.4-13.9) per 100,000 population. While PCa incidence and prevalence increased by 77% and 144% during 1990-2019, respectively, the death rate stagnated. Of the 397% increase in PCa new cases, 234% was due to a rise in the age-specific incidence rate, 79% due to population growth, and 84% due to population aging. The YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs of PCa increased by 2% (-11.8-23.1), 108% (75.5-155.1), and 6% (-8.9-28.1). The death rate and DALYs rate attributable to smoking have decreased 12% and 10%, respectively. The DALYs rate attributable to smoking was 37.4 (15.9-67.8) in Lebanon and 5.9 (2.5-10.6) in Saudi Arabia, which were the highest and lowest in the region, respectively. Conclusions The PCa incidence and prevalence rates increased during 1990-2019; however, the death rate stagnated. The increase in the incidence was mostly due to the rise in the age-specific incidence rate, rather than population growth or aging. The burden of PCa attributable to smoking has decreased in the past 30 years.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
StatePublished - Sep 13 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-12-15
Acknowledgements: The GBD study is funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. S Aljundi acknowledges the Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University and International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia for their support. A M Samy acknowledges the support from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program and being a member of the Egyptian Young Academy of Sciences and Technology. S Haque is acknowledges support from the Deanship of Scientific Research, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia for providing the access of Saudi Digital Library for this research study.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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