Emerging nonvolatile multilevel memory devices have been regarded as a promising solution to meet the increasing demand of high-density memory with low-power consumption. In particular, decimal system of the new computers instead of binary system could be developed if ten nonvolatile states are realized. Here, a general remanent magnetism engineering method is proposed for realizing multiple reliable magnetic and resistance states, not depending on a specific material or device structure. Especially, as a proof-of-concept demonstration, ten states of nonvolatile memory based on the manipulation of ferromagnetic remanent magnetization have been revealed in both Co/Pt magnetic multilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and MgO-based magnetic tunneling junctions at room temperature. Considering ferromagnets have been one of the key factors that enabled the information revolution from its inception, this state-of-the-art remanent magnetism engineering approach has a very broad application prospect in the field of spintronics.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434006, 11774199, and 51871112), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the 111 ProjectB13029, and the Taishan Scholar Program of Shandong Province. H.Z. was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) during his visit to KAUST. X.X.Z. acknowledges the support from KAUST.