Anorexia-cachexia syndrome (ACS) is a major determinant of cancer-related death that causes progressive body weight loss due to depletion of skeletal muscle mass and body fat. Here, we report the development of a novel preclinical murine model of ACS in which lymphomas harbor elevated Myc and activated mTOR signaling. The ACS phenotype in this model correlated with deregulated expression of a number of cytokines, including elevated levels of interleukin-10 which was under the direct translational control of mTOR. Notably, pharmacologic intervention to impair protein synthesis restored cytokine production to near-normal levels, delayed ACS progression, and extended host survival. Together, our findings suggest a new paradigm to treat ACS by strategies which target protein synthesis to block the production of procachexic factors. ©2011 AACR.