Tailoring pore size and pore size distribution of kidney dialysis hollow fiber membranes via dual-bath coagulation approach

Qian Yang, Tai Shung Chung*, Y. E. Santoso

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


Polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber membranes for kidney dialysis application were prepared by the dry-jet wet-spinning method. A dual-coagulation bath technology was first time employed for fabricating the kidney dialysis membranes with a tight inner skin and loose outer supporting layer structure. A weak coagulant isopropanol (IPA) was served as the first external coagulation bath, while water as the second bath. Experiments demonstrate their advantages of better controlling both inner and outer skin morphology. The as-spun fibers have a higher mean effective pore size (μp), pure water permeation flux (PWP) and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) with an increase in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) percentage in bore fluid (i.e., internal coagulant). After being treated in 8000 ppm NaOCl solution for 1 day, fibers show larger pore sizes and porosity in both inner and outer surfaces, and thinner inner and outer layers than their as-spun counterparts. Among them, the bleached fibers spun with 50 wt.% NMP in bore fluid have the MWCO (43 kDa) and PWP (40 × 10-5 L m-2 Pa-1 h-1) suitable for kidney dialysis application. Based on SEM observations and solute rejection performance, the further heat treated fibers in an aqueous solution is found to be an effective way to fine tune membranes morphology and MWCO for kidney dialysis application. The solute rejection performance data of the hollow fiber membranes spun with 55 wt.% NMP in bore fluid after heat treated at 90 °C in water for 2 h were found to be very appropriate for the kidney dialysis application.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-163
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Membrane Science
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Dual-bath coagulation
  • Kidney dialysis membrane
  • NaOCl treatment
  • PES hollow fiber membrane
  • Pore size and pore size distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Filtration and Separation


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