Structured 3D Printed Dry ECG Electrodes Using Copper Based Filament

Aljawharah Alsharif, Nataly Cucuri, Leena Dakhaikh, Fhad Al-Modaf, Nazek El-Atab

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Commercial Silver and Silver Chloride (Ag/AgCl) wet electrodes are used to monitor electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in numerous bioimpedance applications. These electrodes are single-use components that irritate the skin during the replacement and removal of electrodes, making the process uncomfortable for the patient. This study introduces the use of a copper-based filament with the highest reported conductivity (0.006 ω.cm) in biomedical applications, showcasing the process parameters of 3D printed, semi-flexible and wearable dry electrodes to monitor ECG signals. The effect of the printing-process parameters on the electrical performance is thoroughly investigated (10 parameters and >100 electrode samples) to find the printed electrodes' highest conductivity and lowest impedance. The results showed the concentric and flat dry electrode structures of Tbed = 80 °C and Tnozzle = 140 and 150 °C with the best performance, confirming that different electrode structures and printing parameters significantly influence electrodes' functionality, conductivity, and impedance measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationECS Transactions
PublisherInstitute of Physics
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781607685395
StatePublished - 2022
Event242nd ECS Meeting - Atlanta, United States
Duration: Oct 9 2022Oct 13 2022

Publication series

NameECS Transactions
ISSN (Print)1938-6737
ISSN (Electronic)1938-5862


Conference242nd ECS Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 ECS-The Electrochemical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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