Spontaneous hillock growth on indium film surface

He Lin Wei*, Xi Xiang Zhang, Han Chen Huang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Uniformly distributed indium hillocks are grown on silicon substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. The morphologies and the microstructures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). From the TEM and SEM images, we find that, at the earlier stage, the grain coalescent process dominates. This coalescent process induces a larger compressive stress. We believe that the drive force for hillock growth comes from this compressive stress. Under this compressive stress, the grain locating in the middle of several grains are extruded from these grains, and then a hillock forms with the increasing deposition time. For low melting point and high diffusion coefficient metal, such as bismuth and indium, this spontaneous-hillock growth mechanism can be used to fabricate well aligned nanostructures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number062
Pages (from-to)1880-1883
Number of pages4
JournalChinese Physics Letters
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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