Spin–orbit microlaser emitting in a four-dimensional Hilbert space

Zhifeng Zhang, Haoqi Zhao, Shuang Wu, Tianwei Wu, Xingdu Qiao, Zihe Gao, Ritesh Agarwal, Stefano Longhi, Natalia M. Litchinitser, Li Ge, Liang Feng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


A step towards the next generation of high-capacity, noise-resilient communication and computing technologies is a substantial increase in the dimensionality of information space and the synthesis of superposition states on an N-dimensional (N > 2) Hilbert space featuring exotic group symmetries. Despite the rapid development of photonic devices and systems, on-chip information technologies are mostly limited to two-level systems owing to the lack of sufficient reconfigurability to satisfy the stringent requirement for 2(N − 1) degrees of freedom, intrinsically associated with the increase of synthetic dimensionalities. Even with extensive efforts dedicated to recently emerged vector lasers and microcavities for the expansion of dimensionalities1–10, it still remains a challenge to actively tune the diversified, high-dimensional superposition states of light on demand. Here we demonstrate a hyperdimensional, spin–orbit microlaser for chip-scale flexible generation and manipulation of arbitrary four-level states. Two microcavities coupled through a non-Hermitian synthetic gauge field are designed to emit spin–orbit-coupled states of light with six degrees of freedom. The vectorial state of the emitted laser beam in free space can be mapped on a Bloch hypersphere defining an SU(4) symmetry, demonstrating dynamical generation and reconfiguration of high-dimensional superposition states with high fidelity.
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Nov 16 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-12-07
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2020-CRG9-4374.3
Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support from the US Army Research Office (ARO) (W911NF-19-1-0249 and W911NF-21-1-0148), National Science Foundation (NSF) (ECCS-1932803, ECCS-1842612, OMA-1936276 and PHY-1847240), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (W91NF-21-1-0340), Office of Naval Research (ONR) (N00014-20-1-2558) and King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (OSR-2020-CRG9-4374.3). L.F. also acknowledges the support from Sloan Research Fellowship. This work was partially supported by NSF through the University of Pennsylvania Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) (DMR-1720530) and carried out in part at the Singh Center for Nanotechnology, which is supported by the NSF National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Program under grant NNCI-1542153.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Spin–orbit microlaser emitting in a four-dimensional Hilbert space'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this