Background: In plant breeding, there are two primary applications for DNA markers in selection: 1) selection of known genes using a single marker assay (marker-assisted selection; MAS); and 2) whole-genome profiling and prediction (genomic selection; GS). Typically, marker platforms have addressed only one of these objectives. Results: We have developed spiked genotyping-by-sequencing (sGBS), which combines targeted amplicon sequencing with reduced representation genotyping-by-sequencing. To minimize the cost of targeted assays, we utilize a small percent of sequencing capacity available in runs of GBS libraries to "spike" amplified targets of a priori alleles tagged with a different set of unique barcodes. This open platform allows multiple, single-target loci to be assayed while simultaneously generating a whole-genome profile. This dual-genotyping approach allows different sets of samples to be evaluated for single markers or whole genome-profiling. Here, we report the application of sGBS on a winter wheat panel that was screened for converted KASP markers and newly-designed markers targeting known polymorphisms in the leaf rust resistance gene Lr34. Conclusions: The flexibility and low-cost of sGBS will enable a range of applications across genetics research. Specifically in breeding applications, the sGBS approach will allow breeders to obtain a whole-genome profile of important individuals while simultaneously targeting specific genes for a range of selection strategies across the breeding program.
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