Spatially Smoothed TF-Root-MUSIC for DOA Estimation of Coherent and Non-Stationary Sources under Noisy Conditions

Ruslan Zhagypar*, Kalamkas Zhagyparova, Muhammad Tahir Akhtar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This paper proposes a method for efficient Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation of coherent and non-stationary sources under adverse noise conditions. The method consists of three main parts: 1) derivation of Spatial Time-Frequency Distribution (STFD) matrix; 2) application of the forward-backward spatial smoothing technique; 3) estimating the angles of arrival by solving for the roots of the polynomial. The key significance of the proposed method is that the combination of existing methods and techniques allows an estimation of DOA angles for both coherent and non-stationary source signals under noise. Whereas the individual use of the existing methods does not show adequate performance under these conditions. The experiments allow studying the performance of the proposed method for 1) both coherent and non-coherent clean sinusoidal signals; 2) noisy non-stationary chirp signals; 3) coherent and non-stationary signals under noise. Furthermore, extensive simulations have been carried out to compute the root mean square error (RMSE) performance of the proposed method in comparison with the existing ones. The experiments have been designed for varying number of microphones, level of noise, and value of the time-frequency threshold. As a result of the experiments, we observe the efficacy of the proposed method in comparison with the conventional Root-MUSIC and Time-Frequency MUSIC (TF-MUSIC) methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9475951
Pages (from-to)95754-95766
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Faculty Development Competitive Research Grant Program of Nazarbayev University under Grant 110119FD4525.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Direction-of-Arrival estimation
  • Root-MUSIC
  • sound source localization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


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