Spatial variation in coral reef fish and benthic communities in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea

Maha T. Khalil, Jessica Bouwmeester, Michael L. Berumen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3–24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers. Coral cover was considerably lower on inshore reefs, likely due to a 2010 bleaching event. Community analyses showed inshore reefs to be characterized by turf algae, slower-growing corals, lower herbivore diversity, and highly abundant turf-farming damselfishes. Offshore reefs had more planktivorous fishes, a more diverse herbivore assemblage, and faster-growing corals. All reefs appear to be impacted by overfishing, and inshore reefs seem more vulnerable to thermal bleaching. The study provides a description of the spatial variation in biomass and community structure in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea and provides a basis for spatial prioritization and subsequent marine protected area design in Thuwal.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e3410
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 6 2017

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): URF/1/1389-01-01, URF/1/1973-01-01
Acknowledgements: This study was funded by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology through a Competitive Research Grant (URF/1/1389-01-01), the Red Sea Research Center (URF/1/1973-01-01), and baseline research funds to Michael L. Berumen. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Fieldwork was facilitated by the KAUST Coastal and Marine Research Core Lab, and Tane Sinclair-Taylor provided assistance with creating one of the figures.


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