Source and formation of secondary particulate matter in PM2.5 in Asian continental outflow

J. L. Feng, Z. G. Guo, T. R. Zhang, X. H. Yao, C. K. Chan, M. Fang

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67 Scopus citations


Fifty-five 48-hPM2.5 samples were collected from March 2003 to January 2004 at Changdao, a resort island in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea in Northern China. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium accounted for 54 9% of the PM2.5 mass concentration (annual average 47g m-3) while organic matter and K+ contributed to 27 7% and 7 7% of the total mass, respectively. The ratios of SO42- to NO3- mass concentrations could be divided into two regimes and demarcated at nitrate concentration of 5g m-3. In the low NO3- regime, NO3-, SO42- and EC were well correlated to K+, and the estimated contributions of NO 3-, SO42- and EC from biomass burning were 50 27%, 38 24% and 47 27%, respectively. These correlations substantially decreased in the high NO3- regime reflecting fossil fuel combustion and formation of ammonium nitrate and the estimated contributions of NO3-, SO42- and EC from biomass burning were 16 12%, 28 18% and 27 16%, respectively. In most samples, the equivalent ratios of total anion to total cation concentrations were greater than unity, suggesting that the aerosols were acidic. When [H +] > 0, a moderately good linear correlation of the estimated aerosol acidity [H+] with the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was observed with R2 = 0.70 and an increase of [H+] by 100 neq m-3 would increase 1.2g m-3 WSOC in PM2.5. When [H+] > 0, an increase of [H+] by 100 neq m -3 would increase 1.4g m-3 of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in PM2.5. Moreover, the correlation analysis result suggested that 60% of the estimated SOC (on average) in PM2.5 were water-soluble. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Generated from Scopus record by KAUST IRTS on 2023-07-06

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science


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