Solid air hydrogen liquefaction, the missing link of the hydrogen economy

Julian David Hunt, Pedro Marin Montanari, Diego Nieto Hummes, Masoud Taghavi, Behanm Zakeri, Oldrich Joel Romero, Wenji Zhou, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos de Freitas, Nivalde José de Castro, Paulo Smith Schneider, Yoshihide Wada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The most challenging aspect of developing a green hydrogen economy is long-distance oceanic transportation. Hydrogen liquefaction is a transportation alternative. However, the cost and energy consumption for liquefaction is currently prohibitively high, creating a major barrier to hydrogen supply chains. This paper proposes using solid nitrogen or oxygen as a medium for recycling cold energy across the hydrogen liquefaction supply chain. When a liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier reaches its destination, the regasification process of the hydrogen produces solid nitrogen or oxygen. The solid nitrogen or oxygen is then transported in the LH2 carrier back to the hydrogen liquefaction facility and used to reduce the energy consumption cooling gaseous hydrogen. As a result, the energy required to liquefy hydrogen can be reduced by 25.4% using N2 and 27.3% using O2. Solid air hydrogen liquefaction (SAHL) can be the missing link for implementing a global hydrogen economy.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
StatePublished - Apr 27 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-05-05
Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the project entitled “Desenvolvimento de Roadmap e Projeto Piloto de H do Complexo de Pecém” within the scope of R&D ANEEL program and financed by EDP.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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