Sodium-Induced Reordering of Atomic Stacks in Black Phosphorus

Yingchun Cheng, Yihan Zhu, Yu Han, Zhongyuan Liu, Bingchao Yang, Anmin Nie, Wei Huang, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, Farzad Mashayek

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50 Scopus citations


While theoretical simulations predict contradictory results about how the intercalation of foreign metal atoms affects the order of atomic layers in black phosphorus (BP), no direct experimental visualization work has yet clarified this ambiguity. By in situ electrochemical sodiation of BP inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and first-principles calculations, we found that sodium intercalation induces a relative glide of/ ⟨010⟩ {001}, resulting in reordering of atomic stacks from AB to AC in BP. The observed local amorphization in our experiments is triggered by lattice constraints. We predict that intercalation of sodium or other metal atoms introduces n-type carriers in BP. This potentially opens a new field for two-dimensional electronics based on BP.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1350-1356
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 24 2017

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11504169, 61575094, and 61136003), the National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB932200), and Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and Information Displays. The research reported in this publication was supported by partial funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). R.S.-Y. acknowledges financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation (Award CMMI-1619743). A.N. acknowledges support by the Shanghai Youth Talent Program and the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning. The acquisition of the UIC JEOL JEM-ARM200CF microscope was supported by an MRI-R2 Grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (Award DMR-0959470).


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