Sn cation valency dependence in cation exchange reactions involving Cu2-xSe nanocrystals

Luca De Trizio, Hongbo Li, Alberto Casu, Alessandro Genovese, Ayyappan Sathya, Gabriele C. Messina, Liberato Manna*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

106 Scopus citations


We studied cation exchange reactions in colloidal Cu2-xSe nanocrystals (NCs) involving the replacement of Cu+ cations with either Sn2+ or Sn4+ cations. This is a model system in several aspects: first, the +2 and +4 oxidation states for tin are relatively stable; in addition, the phase of the Cu2-xSe NCs remains cubic regardless of the degree of copper deficiency (that is, "x") in the NC lattice. Also, Sn4+ ions are comparable in size to the Cu+ ions, while Sn2+ ones are much larger. We show here that the valency of the entering Sn ions dictates the structure and composition not only of the final products but also of the intermediate steps of the exchange. When Sn4+ cations are used, alloyed Cu2-4ySnySe NCs (with y ≥ 0.33) are formed as intermediates, with almost no distortion of the anion framework, apart from a small contraction. In this exchange reaction the final stoichiometry of the NCs cannot go beyond Cu0.66Sn0.33Se (that is Cu2SnSe3), as any further replacement of Cu+ cations with Sn4+ cations would require a drastic reorganization of the anion framework, which is not possible at the reaction conditions of the experiments. When instead Sn2+ cations are employed, SnSe NCs are formed, mostly in the orthorhombic phase, with significant, albeit not drastic, distortion of the anion framework. Intermediate steps in this exchange reaction are represented by Janus-type Cu2-xSe/SnSe heterostructures, with no Cu-Sn-Se alloys.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16277-16284
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number46
StatePublished - Nov 19 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 American Chemical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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