An optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) is incapable of providing sensing or diagnostic information within dead-zones. We use a two-mode fiber (TMF) and a photonic lantern to completely overcome the main OTDR's dead-zone originating from the front facet of optical fiber. This is achieved by injecting the optical pulses of the OTDR in the form of the fundamental LP01 mode and meanwhile collecting the Rayleigh signals associated with the higher-order modes. Using the reported TMF-based OTDR, we accurately sense the position and frequency of a vibration event located within the dead-zone as a proof-of-concept demonstration.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledgements: Saudi Aramco (RGC/3/3138-01); King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (BAS/1/1614-01-01, GEN/1/6607-01-01,KCR/1/2081-01-01).