Random number generation (RNG) is needed for a myriad of applications ranging from secure communication encryption to numerical simulations to sports and games. However, generating truly random numbers can be elusive. Pseudorandom bit generation using computer algorithms provides a high random bit generation rate. Nevertheless, the reliance on predefined algorithms makes it deterministic and predictable once initial conditions are known. Relying on physical phenomena (such as measuring electrical noise or even rolling dice) can achieve a less predictable sequence of bits. Furthermore, if the physical phenomena originate from quantum effects, they can be truly random and completely unpredictable due to quantum indeterminacy. Traditionally, physical RNG is significantly slower than pseudorandom techniques. To meet the demand for high-speed RNG with perfect unpredictability, semiconductor light sources are adopted as parts of the sources of randomness, i.e., entropy sources, in quantum RNG (QRNG) systems. The high speed of their noise, the high efficiency, and the small scale of these devices make them ideal for chip-scale QRNG. Here, the applications and recent advances of QRNG are reviewed using semiconductor emitters. Finally, the performance of these emitters is compared and discuss their potential in future technologies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (ORA-2022-5313, ORFS-CRG11-2022-5079, BAS/1/1614-01-01, RGC/3/4275-01-01, GEN/1/6607-01-01, KCR/1/2081-01-01, KCR/1/4114-01-01).
© 2023 The Authors. Annalen der Physik published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.
- quantum random number generation
- semiconductor lasers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Physics and Astronomy