Seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production: a solution looking for a problem?

M. A. Khan, Tareq Al-Attas, Soumyabrata Roy, Muhammad M. Rahman, NorEddine Ghaffour, Venkataraman Thangadurai, Stephen Larter, Jinguang Hu, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Md Golam Kibria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

217 Scopus citations


As the price of renewable electricity continues to plummet, hydrogen (H2) production via water electrolysis is gaining momentum globally as a route to decarbonize our energy systems. The requirement of high purity water for electrolysis and the widespread availability of seawater have led to significant research efforts in developing direct seawater electrolysis technology for H2 production. In this perspective, we critically assess the broad-brush arguments on the research and development (R&D) needs for direct seawater electrolysis from energy, cost and environmental aspects. We focus in particular on a process consisting of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) coupled to proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. Our analysis reveals there are limited economic and environmental incentives of pursuing R&D on today's nascent direct seawater electrolysis technology. As commercial water electrolysis requires a significant amount of energy compared to SWRO, the capital and operating costs of SWRO are found to be negligible. This leads to an insignificant increase in levelized cost of H2 (
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEnergy & Environmental Science
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-07-26
Acknowledgements: The author(s) would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Canada First Excellence Research Fund (CFREF) at the University of Calgary. The authors acknowledge Mr Puneet Mannan from Innovate Calgary for providing data from Patsnap database.


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