Seat excess variances of apportionment methods for proportional representation

Udo Schwingenschlögl, Mathias Drton*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Apportionment methods round vote proportions to integer numbers of seats in a parliament. The seat excess is the difference between the integer seat allocation and the fractional ideal share of seats. In order to quantify biased treatment of larger versus smaller parties, previous studies derived the conditional expectation of the seat excess, when the vote proportions are conditioned to be ordered. We complement these studies by computing the conditional seat excess variance for popular apportionment methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1723-1730
Number of pages8
JournalStatistics and Probability Letters
Issue number16
StatePublished - Oct 1 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Divisor methods
  • Quota method of greatest remainders
  • Rounding methods
  • Seat bias

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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