Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated in laboratories have already achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) comparable to market-dominant crystalline silicon solar cells. However, this promising photovoltaic technology suffers from severe loss of PCE during scaling up, limiting its progress toward commercialization. One critical question is to develop scalable, low-cost, high throughput, and well-controlled production methods to deposit high-quality perovskite films. Among various approaches, two-step sequential deposition methods have their unique advantages but have been long overlooked. This review provides an overview of two-step methods for fabricating efficient and stable perovskite solar modules (PSMs). We first discuss the mechanisms of two-step perovskite conversion and advanced engineering approaches to modulate the perovskite formation process. We survey the progress of efficient PSCs prepared by different two-step methods and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method for scalable production of PSMs. Particularly, we highlight that the vapor-based two-step methods are promising for high-throughput in-line production of PSMs. Finally, we provide insights into the challenges and outlook of the industrialization of two-step processes for producing PSMs.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-10-14
Acknowledgements: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under the Solar Energy Technologies Office Award Number DE-EE0008790 and by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory under agreement number FA9453-21-C-0056. The U.S. Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not reflect the official guidance or position of the United States Government, the Department of Defense or of the United States Air Force. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Public Affairs release approval #AFRL-2022-2755.