Scalable CMOS back-end-of-line-compatible AlScN/two-dimensional channel ferroelectric field-effect transistors.

Kwan-Ho Kim, Seyong Oh, Merrilyn Mercy Adzo Fiagbenu, Jeffrey Zheng, Pariasadat Musavigharavi, Pawan Kumar, Nicholas Trainor, Areej Aljarb, Yi Wan, Hyong Min Kim, Keshava Katti, Seunguk Song, Gwangwoo Kim, Zichen Tang, Jui-Han Fu, Mariam Hakami, Vincent Tung, Joan M Redwing, Eric A Stach, Roy H OlssonDeep Jariwala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional monolithic integration of memory devices with logic transistors is a frontier challenge in computer hardware. This integration is essential for augmenting computational power concurrent with enhanced energy efficiency in big data applications such as artificial intelligence. Despite decades of efforts, there remains an urgent need for reliable, compact, fast, energy-efficient and scalable memory devices. Ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FE-FETs) are a promising candidate, but requisite scalability and performance in a back-end-of-line process have proven challenging. Here we present back-end-of-line-compatible FE-FETs using two-dimensional MoS2 channels and AlScN ferroelectric materials, all grown via wafer-scalable processes. A large array of FE-FETs with memory windows larger than 7.8 V, ON/OFF ratios greater than 107 and ON-current density greater than 250 μA um–1, all at ~80 nm channel length are demonstrated. The FE-FETs show stable retention up to 10 years by extension, and endurance greater than 104 cycles in addition to 4-bit pulse-programmable memory features, thereby opening a path towards the three-dimensional heterointegration of a two-dimensional semiconductor memory with silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor logic.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature nanotechnology
StatePublished - May 22 2023

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-05-25
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079
Acknowledgements: This material is based on work supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) TUFEN program under agreement no. HR00112090046. The work was carried out in part at the Singh Center for Nanotechnology at the University of Pennsylvania, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Program (NSF grant NNCI-1542153). H.M.K., K.K. and D.J. acknowledge partial support from the Penn Center for Undergraduate Research and Fellowships. We gratefully acknowledge the use of the facilities and instrumentation supported by NSF through the University of Pennsylvania Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) (DMR-1720530). P.K., E.A.S. and D.J. also acknowledge partial support from the NSF DMR Electronic Photonic and Magnetic Materials (EPM) core program (grant no. DMR-1905853) as well as the University of Pennsylvania Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter, a Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) supported by the NSF (no. DMR-1720530). A.A., Y.W. and V.C.T. are indebted to the support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Solar Center and Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under award no. OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079. The MOCVD-grown MoS2 monolayer samples were provided by the 2D Crystal Consortium—Materials Innovation Platform (2DCC-MIP) facility at the Pennsylvania State University, which is funded by the NSF under cooperative agreement nos. DMR-1539916 and DMR-2039351. S.S. acknowledges support from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (grant no. 2021R1A6A3A14038492). K.K. acknowledges support from the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP), Fellow ID: 2022338725. N.T. acknowledges that this material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1255832.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Bioengineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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