Salt and osmotic stress cause rapid increases in Arabidopsis thaliana cGMP levels

Lara Donaldson, Ndiko Ludidi, Marc R. Knight, Chris Gehring, Katherine Denby*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

144 Scopus citations


A guanylyl cyclase has been recently identified in Arabidopsis but, despite the use of pharmacological inhibitors to infer roles of the second messenger 3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), very few measurements of actual cGMP levels in plants are available. Here, we demonstrate that cGMP levels in Arabidopsis seedlings increase rapidly (≤5 s) and to different degrees after salt and osmotic stress, and that the increases are prevented by treatment with LY, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclases. In addition, we provide evidence to suggest that salt stress activates two cGMP signalling pathways - an osmotic, calcium-independent pathway and an ionic, calcium-dependent pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-320
Number of pages4
JournalFEBS Letters
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Jul 2 2004
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partly supported by the European Commission under the Avicenne 1994 Initiative with the contract No. AVI-CT94-0010 "Advanced disinfection and health-care aspects of wastewater reclamation and reuse in agriculture in Mediterranean regions". The authors are grateful to Cillichemie Italiana srl (Milano, Italy) for precious assistance and collaboration during the investigation.


  • CNGCs, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels
  • Cytosolic calcium
  • NaCl stress
  • Osmotic stress
  • cAMP, 3,5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate
  • cGMP
  • cGMP, 3,5-cyclic guanosine monophosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology


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