Revealing the mechanism of competing A-site doping ions in (K, Na)NbO3-based ceramics

Yifeng Huang, Yinchang Ma, Xi xiang Zhang, Jing Lyu, Xiang Lv*, Jiagang Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although past studies have shown a competitive relationship between bismuth ion (Bi3+) and rare earth ions in potassium sodium niobate {(K, Na)NbO3, KNN}-based ceramics, a comprehensive investigation of this competition has been relatively scarce. Herein, we conducted an in-depth exploration of this competition by substituting Bi3+ with praseodymium ions (Pr3+) in KNN-based ceramics possessing high piezoelectric properties. The substitution of Bi3+ with Pr3+ results in a decrease in the extent of multi-phase coexistence at room temperature, an increase in domain size and grain size, and the enhancement of ferroelectricity. However, it also leads to a deterioration in piezoelectricity. Through a combination of experimental findings and first-principles calculations, we analyzed the alterations in phase structure, ferroelectric domains, and electrical properties, attributing these changes to the competitive nature of Bi-O and Pr-O bonds with their distinct ionic/covalent characteristics. Consequently, this study not only unveils the underlying physical mechanism behind the competition between Bi3+ and Pr3+ ions in KNN-based piezoceramics but also presents a novel approach to tailor the phase transition temperature, thereby facilitating the overall performance improvement of KNN-based ceramics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1127-1136
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The American Ceramic Society.


  • A-site doping ions
  • electronegativity
  • lead-free piezoelectric
  • potassium sodium niobate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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