Remote Monitoring of Skin Temperature Through a Wristband Employing a Printed VO Sensor

Firas Fatani*, Mohammad Vaseem, Zubair Akhter, Rana Muhammad Bilal, Atif Shamim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The need for highly sensitive, environmentally stable, mechanically flexible, and low-cost temperature sensors for on-body measurements has been increasing with the wide adoption of personal healthcare-Internet-of-Things (H-IoT) devices. Printed electronics (PE) is a good platform for such sensors because it enables the realization of flexible devices through simple and rapid methods at a relatively low cost. However, previously reported printed temperature sensors suffer from poor sensitivity and/or environmental instability. In this article, we report a custom tungsten (W)-doped vanadium dioxide (VO2) ink-based screen-printed temperature sensor having the highest temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of 2.78% C-1 with a resolution of 0.1 °C between 30 °C and 40 °C. To protect it from environmental effects, a fluoropolymer-basedpassivation layer is added for accurate temperature readings even in 90% relative humidity. The sensor is printed on a flexible substrate and shows minimal deterioration in performance over 1000 bending cycles. For wearability and remote monitoring, the sensor is integrated with a custom Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless readout in the form of wristband. The BLE readout comprises an ultrathin and flexible patch antenna optimized for both BLE bandwidth (BW) and human wearability. It demonstrates a minimal specific absorption rate (SAR) value of only 0.068 W/kg, making it safe to wear. Despite the antenna's thin structure (0.004λ), it has a gain of 1.65 dBi, enabling an excellent communication range. The proposed wristband is tested on ten volunteers and under daily activities, which shows promising results with a maximum error of 0.16 °C with reference to those of a commercial thermometer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-180
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2001-2012 IEEE.


  • Flexible antennas
  • flexible temperature sensors
  • on-body antennas
  • on-body worn sensors
  • printed sensors
  • vanadium dioxide (VO2)-based sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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