Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case, the performances of the active material are inaccurate, especially at high current densities. In this work we show the error committed in neglecting the polarizability of lithium counter electrodes, and we propose two reference electrodes to use in organic electrolytes based on lithium salts, namely Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO 4. In particular, it was observed that, the polarizability of the metallic lithium counter electrode has a relevant stochastic component, which renders measurements at high current densities (above 1 mA·cm - 2) in two electrode cells non reproducible.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): KUS-l1-001-12
Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under the award no. KUS-l1-001-12.
This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.