Recruitment, mortality and growth of mangrove (Rhizophora sp.) seedlings in Ulugan Bay, Palawan, Philippines

C. Padilla, M. D. Fortes, C. M. Duarte, J. Terrados*, L. Kamp-Nielsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Propagule dispersal, establishment and recruitment to the sapling stage are critical steps in the life cycle of mangroves. Specific (i.e., per capita) rates of recruitment and mortality, and the growth rates of Rhizophora seedlings in three mangrove stands in Ulugan Bay (Palawan, Philippines) were estimated between March 1999 and February 2001. Recruitment and mortality were variable in space and time, with mortality exceeding rates of recruitment at all sites. The specific rates of seedling recruitment and mortality were higher in Buenavista (0.66 year-1 and -1.67 year-1) than in Umalagan (0.05 year-1 and -0.33 year-1) and Oyster Bay (0.13 year -1 and -0.24 year-1). The annual rate of production of internodes by the main stem was similar at the three sites (5.4-5.5 internodes year-1), but the annual rate of elongation of the main stem was higher in Buenavista (10.6 cm year-1) than in Oyster Bay (7.6 cm year-1) and Umalagan (5.6 cm year-1).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)589-595
Number of pages7
JournalTrees - Structure and Function
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This study was performed within the frame-work of the PREDICT project, funded by the INCO-DC program of the European Commission (contract number, ERBIC18-CT98-0292). We thank Glenda Gollod and the kids at Palawan State University (Mai, Sweetie, Agnes, Aris, Daniel, and Roy) for assistance in the field, Tutu Almonte and Mayor Hagedorn and his staff at Rita Island for accommodation, Jens Borum for the elemental analysis of the leaves, and the seagrass laboratory staff at MSI Zayda, Day, Hildie, Napo and Roger, and Mike Mapa for enduring support. We thank the comments of the reviewers and Dr. M.C. Ball which helped us to improve former versions of the manuscript.


  • Growth
  • Mangrove seedlings
  • Mortality
  • Recruitment
  • Rhizophora

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Physiology
  • Ecology
  • Plant Science


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