Recovering and reuse of textile dyes from dyebath effluent using surfactant driven forward osmosis to achieve zero hazardous chemical discharge.

Maria Yasmeen, Muhammad Saqib Nawaz, Sher Jamal Khan, NorEddine Ghaffour, Muhammad Zafar Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


This experimental study explores the feasibility of the reuse of dyes recovered from denim and polyester dyebath effluents using forward osmosis (FO) system to achieve zero hazardous material discharge. In batch experiments, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 0.5 M concentration generated an average flux of 3.5 L/m2/h (LMH) and reverse salt flux (RSF) of only 0.012 g/m2/h (GMH), while maintaining 100% dye rejection. This flux stability comes from the property of surfactants to form micelles and exert a stable osmotic pressure (π) above their critical micelle concentration (CMC). The low RSF is due to the greater micelle size. A colored fouling layer was formed on the membrane active layer (AL), which was easily removed using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and citric acid. According to Fourier transform infrared spectra and atomic forces microscopy images of the AL, the interaction between foulants and membrane active groups did not significantly affect the physiochemical properties of the membrane. In the semi-continuous experiment, a very stable average flux of 7.3 LMH and RSF of 0.03 GMH was obtained using 0.75 M SDS as draw solution. The stacked 1D proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (1HNMR) spectra of both original and recovered disperse dyes showed 100% similarity, which validates the concept that the recovered dyes maintained their integrity during reconcentration and can be reused in the next batch dyeing process. Importantly, the diluted SDS concentration can be directly reused within the same textile industry in scouring and finishing processes. The processes of dye recovery and reuse developed in this study do not produce any waste or hazardous by-products and are suitable for scale-up and onsite industrial applications.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119524
JournalWater Research
StatePublished - Dec 28 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2023-01-03
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided for this study by the MS Research Grant by the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan, and WaterAid Pakistan (WAP) under Partnership Agreement No. 6IN03.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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