The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has revealed the urgent need for accurate, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tests for epidemic understanding and management by monitoring the population worldwide. Though current diagnostic methods including real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provide sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, they require relatively long processing time, equipped laboratory facilities, and highly skilled personnel. Laser-scribed graphene (LSG)-based biosensing platforms have gained enormous attention as miniaturized electrochemical systems, holding an enormous potential as point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools. We describe here a miniaturized LSG-based electrochemical sensing scheme for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis combined with three-dimensional (3D) gold nanostructures. This electrode was modified with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody following the proper surface modifications proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations as well as electrochemical techniques. The system was integrated into a handheld POC detection system operated using a custom smartphone application, providing a user-friendly diagnostic platform due to its ease of operation, accessibility, and systematic data management. The analytical features of the electrochemical immunoassay were evaluated using the standard solution of S-protein in the range of 5.0-500 ng/mL with a detection limit of 2.9 ng/mL. A clinical study was carried out on 23 patient blood serum samples with successful COVID-19 diagnosis, compared to the commercial RT-PCR, antibody blood test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG and IgA test results. Our test provides faster results compared to commercial diagnostic tools and offers a promising alternative solution for next-generation POC applications.
Bibliographical noteKAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2021-06-07
Acknowledgements: The authors would like to express their acknowledgments to the financial support from Ege University, Research Foundation (Project No. TOA-2020-21862) and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry