Radiation-induced defect formation and reactivity of model TiO2 capping layers with MMA: A comparison with Ru

B. V. Yakshinskiy, M. N. Hedhili, S. Zalkind, M. Chandhok, Theodore E. Madey

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Our goal is to provide insights into surface processes that affect the reflectivity and lifetimes of TiO2 and Rucapped multilayer mirrors used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Several surface-sensitive ultrahigh-vacuum techniques are used to characterize thermally-induced and electron-induced surface reactions of methyl methacrylate (MMA), a model for hydrocarbons found in EUV lithography vacuum chambers; low-energy electron beams are used to mimic excitations initiated by EUV radiation. Carbon film growth is measured on TiO2 surfaces during electron bombardment (at 20 eV and 100 eV) in MMA vapor; C growth rates are compared on Ru surfaces. The initial rates on the clean surfaces are very different: a C film grows more rapidly on TiO2 than on Ru. However, the limiting growth rates are the same for C thicknesses greater than ~1 to 1.5 nm, when MMA interacts with a C film. Irradiation of the C films in O2 gas, or in MMA + O2, has a mitigating effect on TiO2 surfaces.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEmerging Lithographic Technologies XII
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes
EventEmerging Lithographic Technologies XII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 26 2008Feb 28 2008

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherEmerging Lithographic Technologies XII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Carbon
  • Electron-induced reactions
  • Euv optics contamination
  • Euv optics lifetime
  • Extreme ultraviolet lithography (euvl)
  • Methyl methacrylate (mma)
  • Ruthenium
  • TiO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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