Quantum-size-tuned heterostructures enable efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cells

Hao Chen, Sam Teale, Bin Chen, Yi Hou, Luke Grater, Tong Zhu, Koen Bertens, So Min Park, Harindi R. Atapattu, Yajun Gao, Mingyang Wei, Andrew K. Johnston, Qilin Zhou, Kaimin Xu, Danni Yu, Congcong Han, Teng Cui, Eui Hyuk Jung, Chun Zhou, Wenjia ZhouAndrew H. Proppe, Sjoerd Hoogland, Frédéric Laquai, Tobin Filleter, Kenneth R. Graham, Zhijun Ning, E. Sargent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

246 Scopus citations


The energy landscape of reduced-dimensional perovskites (RDPs) can be tailored by adjusting their layer width (n). Recently, two/three-dimensional (2D/3D) heterostructures containing n = 1 and 2 RDPs have produced perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with >25% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Unfortunately, this method does not translate to inverted PSCs due to electron blocking at the 2D/3D interface. Here we report a method to increase the layer width of RDPs in 2D/3D heterostructures to address this problem. We discover that bulkier organics form 2D heterostructures more slowly, resulting in wider RDPs; and that small modifications to ligand design induce preferential growth of n ≥ 3 RDPs. Leveraging these insights, we developed efficient inverted PSCs (with a certified quasi-steady-state PCE of 23.91%). Unencapsulated devices operate at room temperature and around 50% relative humidity for over 1,000 h without loss of PCE; and, when subjected to ISOS-L3 accelerated ageing, encapsulated devices retain 92% of initial PCE after 500 h.
Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNature Photonics
StatePublished - Apr 7 2022

Bibliographical note

KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2022-04-18
Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): OSR-2018-CRG7-3737, OSR-CARF/CCF-3079
Acknowledgements: This research was made possible by the US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research Grant (N00014-20-1-2572). This work was supported in part by the Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence program (ORF7-Ministry of Research and Innovation, Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence Round 7). We appreciate the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (beamline 14B and 16B) and X. Gao and Z. Su for their help with GIWAXS characterization. Z.N. is grateful for support by the National Key Research Program (2021YFA0715502, 2016YFA0204000) and the National Science Fund of China (61935016). S.M.P., H.R.A. and K.R.G. acknowledge the US Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0018208 for supporting the UPS and IPES measurements. T.F. and T.C. acknowledge the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the Natural Science and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC) for KPFM measurements.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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